Wednesday, March 23, 2011
Wednesday, March 2, 2011
32-36 Prospect Street,
Tel: 01482 336336
29 Percy Street,
Mesmac head office
P.O box 417,
Cottingham GUM clinic
Castle hill hospital,
GUM clinic – sexual health clinic
The Mercury Trust.
44, Portland Street,
How can you catch HIV ?
HIV can only be transmitted through blood and other bodily fluids containing blood such as semen, vaginal fluids and breast milk.
The virus is transmitted by infected blood cells entering the body usually by:
· Unprotected penetrative anal or vaginal intercourse,
· Oral sex - although this is less common it is still a risk, especially if there are ulcers, sores or bleeding gums etc in the mouth.
· The sharing of drug needle’s (as a small amount of blood is drawn back into the needle when withdrawn then injected into the next person),
· Mother to baby - although with new medicines a mother can give birth to a healthy HIV negative baby.
· HIV from blood transfusions – blood in the U.K is now screened and is safe although this may not be the case in other countries.
HIV cannot be transmitted by:
· Toilet seats
· Kissing / saliva
Although HIV is present in sweat, tears, saliva and urine, the concentration of the virus in these fluids is too low for successful transmission.
For transmission of the HI virus, the quality, quantity and route of the HI virus must be strong enough to get into the bloodstream and invade the immune system.
Tuesday, March 1, 2011
The first reported cases of AIDS were back in 1981 in the USA. Doctors had come across a rare set of symptoms which included: pneumonia (caused by a parasite called Pneumocystis carinni), cytomegalovirus infections, thrush and Karposi’s sarcoma (a rare form of skin cancer). The patients that were suffering with these symptoms were all young homosexual men with limited immune systems.
Soon after this over in central Africa doctors were treating patients with a new disease that also undermined the immune system and caused diarrhoea and weight loss, namely “slims disease”, however these patients were all heterosexual. The causes and modes of transmission were not yet known. In 1983 it was discovered that this disease was caused by a virus, known to be LAV (lymphadenopathy – associated virus) and HTLV – III (human T cell lymphotropic virus type III). In May 1986 the virus was renamed HIV (human immunodeficiency virus).
Two viruses are now associated with AIDS: HIV – 1 and HIV -2.
HIV-1 is associated with infections in Central, East and southern Africa, North and South America, Europe and the rest of the world.
HIV-2 was discovered in West Africa (Cape Verde Islands, Guinea-Bissau and Senegal) in 1986 and it is mostly restricted to West Africa.
HIV-2 is similar to HIV-1, but HIV-2 is less pathogenic than HIV-1, and HIV-2 infections have a longer latency period with slower progression to disease, lower viral counts and lower rates of transmission